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Tag: domestic terrorism

Superimposed over a painting of Franklin, Adams, and Jefferson working on a document are the words: "We've just created the separation of Church and State. It's so simple, a child can understand it. Right?"

Freedom of Religion

Is the First Amendment an aspiration, or reality?

Freedom of Religion: do we really have it? During our passage from Juneteenth to the Fourth of July this year, I’ve been thinking a lot about the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution’s Bill of Rights. And especially the specific freedoms it enshrines.

The “Defund or Abolish the Police” movement has driven me (along with many others) to take some long, hard looks at the institution of policing, its history, and what it could become, if remade in a better way.

But—also in light of recent events—I’ve begun to wonder: Is the First Amendment just as aspirational as the police motto “To Protect and Serve”? In this and several future posts, I’ll consider our ideals, and how they add up next to our reality.

The text of the First Amendment to the US Constitution reads: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.”
Many thanks to Indivisible of Door County, WI.

Freedom of Religion

Today’s post interrogates the first sentence in the First Amendment (but not using the Reid Technique).

“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,” is how the First Amendment begins. Yet, for much of our history, Americans have—and still do—strenuously seek to limit, abridge, and deny the religious freedom of others.

Superimposed over a painting of Franklin, Adams, and Jefferson working on a document are the words: "We've just created the separation of Church and State. It's so simple, a child can understand it. Right?"
Many thanks to Imgflip and Marshal Tenner Winter for this image.

Black people

Since well before the birth of the United States as a country Black people were enslaved in North America. Freedom of religion was one of the many freedoms they were denied.

For centuries, the home religions of enslaved persons were suppressed by many slaveowners. Some resisted converting their slaves to Christianity because it might make them seem “too equal.” And some enslaved Muslims tried to hold onto their religion.

But most owners insisted they be converted, to make them see their enslaved state as God’s law. Some even altered the Bibles they allowed their slaves to have—they feared the Exodus story might give them too many ideas.

It didn’t ultimately work. The Black Church became a powerful force for freedom. But those slaveowners and their enablers gave religious suppression a real good shot. And they successfully stamped out a lot of African beliefs, or forced them to “go underground.”

This quote from Thomas Paine reads, ““Spiritual freedom is the root of political liberty...As the union between spiritual freedom and political liberty seems nearly inseparable, it is our duty to defend both.”
Many thanks to Ammo.Com.

Native Americans

The American authorities made far fewer bones about suppressing Native American spiritual and religious beliefs. “Freedom of religion for Indians” was never a consideration, even well into recent times.

They didn’t go about it quite like European invaders in what would become Mexican, and later western U.S. territories. Those “missionaries” enslaved and forcefully converted the Indians under their control.

But the US Government focused increasingly virulent ethnic cleansing energy on “pagan” ceremonies, starting in the 1830s. They made many practices illegal, punishable by imprisonment.

They often forcibly kidnapped children and held them in boarding schools where their home languages, customs, and spirituality were brutally suppressed. This continued well into the 20th Century.

This graphic design by Mark Forton, based on the US flag, features symbols of many major religions in the "star field" with the words "Religious Freedom Makes America Great" below.
Right on, designer Mark Forton! This image is available on several products.

Contemporary hate and intolerance

More recently, white supremacists have felt free to attack churches, synagogues, and temples. Using domestic terrorism to suppress religious diversity flies in the face of the First Amendment, but law enforcement usually has focused on the egregious violence to persons and property. I wrote about this last year on my Artdog Adventures blog.

Lawmakers have tried and sometimes succeeded to use Christianity as an excuse to discriminate against LGBTQIA+ individuals, in what future generations may view as a violation of the “establishment clause.”

The organization Human Rights Watch published a US map in 2018 that highlighted states with what it called "License to Discriminate" Laws, attacking LGBTQIA+ rights in the areas of adoption and foster care, counseling, and more. The states are: North Dakota, South Dakota, Michigan, Virginia, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, and Texas.
Many thanks to Human Rights Watch for this map.

Some people welcome these laws and court rulings as “freedom of religion.” But many others see them as “freedom to discriminate.”

And unfortunately the current President of the United States seems determined to violate the full spectrum of First Amendment. He got started right away on freedom of religion.

Early his first year, he tried to keep Muslims from several countries out of the U.S. And eventually he succeeded. Does he value the appearances and trappings of religion far more than the substance? Looks that way to this writer.

How far have we really come?

We like to think that, as a nation, we’ve come a long way forward into a more equitable and enlightened society. We earnestly want to believe Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s words, “The arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice.”

But recent events have laid bare just how deeply our country is divided. We disagree more sharply than ever on liberal/conservative lines. This has even gotten to the point where we disagree over simple public safety measures.

Savage injustices tear us apart on many other fronts, too. Economic equality. Access to health care. Our dealings with the justice system. And many more. So of course the intolerance issues extend to freedom of religion.

The challenge before us is clear. If we want that arc to bend toward justice, we must work to make sure it heads that way.


Many thanks to Indivisible of Door County, WI, for the text-image of the First Amendment. I want to thank Imgflip and Marshal Tenner Winter for the “So simple a child can understand” image. Much gratitude to Ammo.Com, for the Thomas Paine quote. And many thanks to Human Rights Watch for the “License to Discriminate” map. I appreciate you all!

This image of a flag with the words "remembering 9/11" calls us to get some perspective on 9/11.

Perspective on 9/11

Where were you on 9/11? Nearly everyone who lived through it remembers that day. It marked us as a country, and it has affected those too young to personally remember (some of whom are now serving in Afghanistan). It changed life in American in several important ways. But, eighteen years out, it’s possible to get a new perspective on 9/11.

The 9/11 memorial includes twin spotlights where the twin towers once stood. Here's a view across the harbor at the spotlights on a cloudy night. It offers a particular perspective on 9/11.

Comparisons with Pearl Harbor

In some ways, as others have pointed out, it was another generation’s Pearl Harbor. The Dec. 7, 1941 attack by the Japanese on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii cost 2,403 innocent lives. Each led the United States from peacetime into a costly war. 

Both also led the nation into a periods of greater racism and xenophobia. 

Consider the widespread anti-Japanese racism (as well as Italian and German slurs and suspicion), and the Japanese internment camps of World War II

Consider the development of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp, the repudiation of Muslim refugees, and President Trump’s efforts to initiate a “Muslim ban” and ramp up deportations while denying asylum seekers entry.

This is a classic photo of the USS Arizona being sunk at Pearl Harbor in 1941. The photographer is unknown.
The aircraft carrier Arizona was sunk in the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and was never raised. (National Archives)

The 9/11 attacks, almost exactly 60 years later in 2001 at the World Trade Center’s twin towers in New York City, the Pentagon in Washington, DC, and a field near Shanksville, PA, killed a total of 2,996 people (plus more later, as first responders and others who had labored in the aftermath developed cancer and other health issues that slowly killed them).

Comparisons with Oklahoma City

However, to offer another perspective on 9/11, I invite you to consider a different terrorist attack, the 1995 bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, OK, which killed 168 people and wounded more than 680. Until 9/11, it was the deadliest terrorist attack on record in the United States, and remains the most deadly domestic terror attack.

Start your new perspective on 9/11 by considering the domestic terrorism of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. Here's an image of the memorial at night.
Here’s a view of the Oklahoma City National Memorial at night. Each chair represents a person who died. (CNHI News Service/Kyle Phillips/Norman Transcript)

NOTE: This analysis appears not to include attacks on civilian non-combatants between Native Americans and European-descended US citizens from the beginning of the Republic (and before), such as the Ft. Mims Massacre in Alabama in 1813 (400-500 settlers killed), the Battle of Tallushatchee, also in 1813 in Tennessee (approx. 300 Creeks killed), and a depressingly long list of others. One of the last, the Massacre at Wounded Knee in 1890, with 130-250 Sioux men, women, and children killed, also exceeded the Oklahoma City death toll if you accept the higher end of the estimates.

My point in this post, however, is that 9/11 changed many things about how we live our lives, what freedoms and privacy we are required to give up, and increased suspicion of “outsider/others” in our country, as the Oklahoma City bombing did not. Yet we could argue there have been relatively free of foreign or foreign-inspired terrorism since 9/11.

Domestic terror is on the rise, however. The threat we must face now comes from within. Will we gain perspective on 9/11? Will we see this new landscape? Or will we continue to imagine we see Al Qaeda in the shadows, and ignore the terrorists among us?

IMAGE CREDITS: Many thanks to The Pipeline, for the header image with the flag; to IBIE for posting the Adobe Stock image of the 9/11 Memorial spotlights at night; to Wikimedia Commons and the National Archive for providing a good file of the public domain U.S.S. Arizona photo from the Pearl Harbor attack; and to the Enid News & Eagle for the photo from CNHI News Service/Kyle Phillips/Norman Transcript, for the photo of the Oklahoma City National Memorial at night.

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